Soybeans Options Explained

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Soybeans 101: Nutrition Facts and Health Effects

Soybeans or soya beans (Glycine max) are a type of legume native to eastern Asia.

They are an important component of Asian diets and have been consumed for thousands of years. Today, they are mainly grown in Asia and South and North America.

In Asia, soybeans are often eaten whole, but heavily processed soy products are much more common in Western countries.

Various soy products are available, including soy flour, soy protein, tofu, soy milk, soy sauce, and soybean oil.

Soybeans contain antioxidants and phytonutrients that are linked to various health benefits. However, concerns have been raised about potential adverse effects.

This article tells you everything you need to know about soybeans.

Soybeans are mainly composed of protein but also contain good amounts of carbs and fat.

The nutrition facts for 3.5 ounces (100 grams) of boiled soybeans are ( 1 ):

  • Calories: 173
  • Water: 63%
  • Protein: 16.6 grams
  • Carbs: 9.9 grams
  • Sugar: 3 grams
  • Fiber: 6 grams
  • Fat: 9 grams
    • Saturated: 1.3 grams
    • Monounsaturated: 1.98 grams
    • Polyunsaturated: 5.06 grams
    • Omega-3: 0.6 grams
    • Omega-6: 4.47 g

Protein

Soybeans are among the best sources of plant-based protein.

The protein content of soybeans is 36–56% of the dry weight ( 2 , 3 , 4 ).

One cup (172 grams) of boiled soybeans boasts around 29 grams of protein ( 5 ).

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The nutritional value of soy protein is good, although the quality is not quite as high as animal protein ( 6 ).

The main types of protein in soybeans are glycinin and conglycinin, which make up approximately 80% of the total protein content. These proteins may trigger allergic reactions in some people ( 4 , 7 ).

Consumption of soy protein has been linked with a modest decrease in cholesterol levels ( 8 , 9 , 10 ).

Soybeans are classified as oilseeds and used to make soybean oil.

The fat content is approximately 18% of the dry weight — mainly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, with small amounts of saturated fat ( 11 ).

The predominant type of fat in soybeans is linoleic acid, accounting for approximately 50% of the total fat content.

Carbs

Being low in carbs, whole soybeans are very low on the glycemic index (GI), which is a measure of how foods affect the rise in blood sugar after a meal (12).

This low GI makes soybeans suitable for people with diabetes.

Fiber

Soybeans contain a fair amount of both soluble and insoluble fiber.

The insoluble fibers are mainly alpha-galactosides, which may cause flatulence and diarrhea in sensitive individuals ( 13 , 14 ).

Alpha-galactosides belong to a class of fibers called FODMAPs, which may exacerbate the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) ( 15 ).

Despite causing unpleasant side effects in some people, soluble fibers in soybeans are generally considered healthy.

They are fermented by bacteria in your colon, leading to the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which may improve gut health and reduce your risk of colon cancer ( 16 , 17 ).

SUMMARY Soybeans are a very rich source of plant-based protein and fat. What’s more, their high fiber content is good for your gut health.

Soybeans are a good source of various vitamins and minerals, including ( 1 ):

  • Molybdenum. Soybeans are rich in molybdenum, an essential trace element primarily found in seeds, grains, and legumes ( 18 ).
  • Vitamin K1. The form of vitamin K found in legumes is known as phylloquinone. It plays an important role in blood clotting ( 19 ).
  • Folate. Also known as vitamin B9, folate has various functions in your body and is considered particularly important during pregnancy ( 20 ).
  • Copper. Dietary intake of copper is often low in Western populations. Deficiency may have adverse effects on heart health ( 21 ).
  • Manganese. A trace element found in most foods and drinking water. Manganese is poorly absorbed from soybeans due to their high phytic acid content ( 22 ).
  • Phosphorus. Soybeans are a good source of phosphorus, an essential mineral abundant in the Western diet.
  • Thiamine. Also known as vitamin B1, thiamine plays an important role in many bodily functions.

SUMMARY Soybeans are a good source of several vitamins and minerals, including vitamin K1, folate, copper, manganese, phosphorus, and thiamine.

Soybeans are rich in various bioactive plant compounds, including ( 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ):

  • Isoflavones. A family of antioxidant polyphenols, isoflavones have a variety of health effects.
  • Phytic acid. Found in all plant seeds, phytic acid (phytate) impairs the absorption of minerals like zinc and iron. Levels of this acid can be reduced by boiling, sprouting, or fermenting the beans.
  • Saponins. One of the main classes of plant compounds in soybeans, saponins have been found to reduce cholesterol in animals.

Isoflavones

Soybeans contain higher amounts of isoflavones than other common foods ( 27 ).

Isoflavones are unique phytonutrients that resemble the female sex hormone estrogen. In fact, they belong to a family of substances called phytoestrogens (plant estrogens).

The main types of isoflavones in soy are genistein (50%), daidzein (40%), and glycitein (10%) ( 23 ).

Some people possess a special type of gut bacteria that can convert daidzein to equol, a substance considered responsible for many of the beneficial health effects of soybeans.

People whose bodies can produce equol are expected to benefit much more from soy consumption than those whose bodies cannot ( 28 ).

The percentage of equol producers is higher in Asian populations and among vegetarians than in the general Western population ( 29 , 30 ).

SUMMARY Soybeans are a rich source of various bioactive plant compounds, including isoflavones, saponins, and phytic acid. Isoflavones in particular mimic estrogen and are responsible for many of soybeans’ health effects.

Like most whole foods, soybeans have a number of beneficial health effects.

May reduce cancer risk

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in modern society.

Eating soy products is linked to increased breast tissue in women, hypothetically increasing the risk of breast cancer ( 31 , 32 , 33 ).

However, most observational studies indicate that consumption of soy products may reduce breast cancer risk ( 34 , 35 ).

Studies also indicate a protective effect against prostate cancer in men ( 36 , 37 , 38 ).

A number of soybean compounds — including isoflavones and lunasin — may be responsible for the potential cancer-preventive effects ( 39 , 40 ).

Exposure to isoflavones early in life may be particularly protective against breast cancer later in life ( 41 , 42 ).

Keep in mind that this evidence is limited to observational studies, which indicate an association between soy consumption and cancer prevention — but do not prove causation.

Alleviation of menopause symptoms

Menopause is the period in a woman’s life when menstruation stops.

It is often associated with unpleasant symptoms — such as sweating, hot flashes, and mood swings — which are brought about by a reduction in estrogen levels.

Interestingly, Asian women — especially Japanese women — are less likely to experience menopause symptoms than Western women.

Dietary habits, such as the higher consumption of soy foods in Asia, may explain this difference.

Studies indicate that isoflavones, a family of phytoestrogens found in soybeans, may alleviate these symptoms ( 43 , 44 ).

Soy products do not affect all women in this way. Soy only seems to be effective in so-called equol producers — those who possess a type of gut bacteria able to convert isoflavones into equol.

Equol may be responsible for many of soy’s health benefits.

Daily intake of 135 mg of isoflavones for 1 week — equivalent to 2.4 ounces (68 grams) of soybeans per day — reduced menopausal symptoms only in equol producers ( 45 ).

While hormonal therapies have traditionally been used as a treatment for menopausal symptoms, isoflavone supplements are widely used today ( 46 ).

Bone health

Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone density and an increased risk of fractures, especially in older women.

Consumption of soy products may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in women who have undergone menopause ( 47 , 48 ).

These beneficial effects seem to be caused by isoflavones ( 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 ).

SUMMARY Soybeans contain plant compounds that may help prevent breast and prostate cancer. What’s more, these legumes may relieve menopause symptoms and cut the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

Even though soybeans have a number of health benefits, some individuals need to limit their consumption of soy products — or avoid them altogether.

Suppression of thyroid function

High intake of soy products may suppress thyroid function in some people and contribute to hypothyroidism — a condition characterized by low production of thyroid hormones ( 53 ).

The thyroid is a large gland that regulates growth and controls the rate at which your body expends energy.

Animal and human studies indicate that the isoflavones found in soybeans may suppress the formation of thyroid hormones ( 54 , 55 ).

One study in 37 Japanese adults showed that eating 1 ounce (30 grams) of soybeans every day for 3 months caused symptoms related to suppressed thyroid function.

The symptoms included discomfort, sleepiness, constipation, and thyroid enlargement — all of which disappeared after the study ended ( 56 ).

Another study in adults with mild hypothyroidism found that taking 16 mg of isoflavones every day for 2 months suppressed thyroid function in 10% of the participants ( 55 ).

The amount of isoflavones consumed was rather small — equivalent to eating 0.3 ounces (8 grams) of soybeans per day ( 57 ).

However, most studies in healthy adults have not found any significant links between soy consumption and changes in thyroid function ( 58 , 59 , 60 ).

An analysis of 14 studies noted no significant adverse effects of soybean consumption on thyroid function in healthy adults, whereas infants born with thyroid hormone deficiency were considered at risk ( 58 ).

In short, regular consumption of soy products or isoflavone supplements may lead to hypothyroidism in sensitive individuals, especially those who have an underactive thyroid gland.

Flatulence and diarrhea

Like most other beans, soybeans contain insoluble fibers, which may cause flatulence and diarrhea in sensitive individuals ( 13 , 14 ).

Although not unhealthy, these side effects can be unpleasant.

Belonging to a class of fibers called FODMAPs, the fibers raffinose and stachyose may worsen symptoms of IBS, a common digestive disorder ( 15 ).

If you have IBS, avoiding or limiting the consumption of soybeans may be a good idea.

Soy allergy

Food allergy is a common condition caused by a harmful immune reaction to certain components in foods.

Soy allergy is triggered by soy proteins — glycinin and conglycinin — found in most soy products ( 7 ).

Even though soybeans are one of the most common allergenic foods, soy allergy is relatively uncommon in both children and adults ( 61 , 62 ).

SUMMARY In some people, soy products may suppress thyroid function, cause flatulence and diarrhea, and lead to allergic reactions.

Soybeans are high in protein and a decent source of both carbs and fat.

They are a rich source of various vitamins, minerals, and beneficial plant compounds, such as isoflavones.

For this reason, regular soybean intake may alleviate the symptoms of menopause and reduce your risk of prostate and breast cancer.

However, they can cause digestive problems and suppress thyroid function in predisposed individuals.

Building from source : configure options explained

Packages ngs-sdk , ncbi-vdb , sra-tools have some unusual configure options.

Here we will try to explain them.

ncbi-vdb package depends on ngs-sdk , sra-tools – on ngs-sdk and ncbi-vdb .

ncbi-vdb should be able to find include files of ngs-sdk , sra-tools – ngs-sdk package and sources and build results of ncbi-vdb .

By default build output / build results of ngs / ncbi-vdb / sra-tools is created in

You can change it by using –build-prefix , but then – you should tell sra-tools where to find build results of ncbi-vdb .

Defaults: Standard / default / recommended location of source files

Default recommended locations of source files of ngs / ncbi-vdb / sra-tools is:

ngs / ncbi-vdb / sra-tools packages should be located in subdirectories named ngs , ncbi-vdb , sra-tools inside of the same directory.

Usually it is done automatically by running: git clone https://github.com/ncbi/ngs.git ; git clone https://github.com/ncbi/ncbi-vdb.git ; git clone https://github.com/ncbi/sra-tools.git

Then you should see the following:

If you create repositories as described above and run ./configure and make in each of ngs / ncbi-vdb / sra-tools subdirectories – each of them should find all required files from ngs / ncbi-vdb .

Non-standard location of ngs-sdk / ncbi-vdb

If location of ngs-sdk / ncbi-vdb or their build output directory is not standard (see above), you need to specify it:

  • ngs-sdk is in

/1/ngs-1.3.0/ngs-sdk
ncbi-vdb is in

/2/ncbi-vdb-2.8.0
sra-tools in

ncbi-vdb/configure requires to find header files of ngs-sdk :

sra-tools needs to find ngs-sdk package and ncbi-vdb ‘s sources and build results.

Configure options are sticky!

Configure options are sticky. Running configure without options will use the options that you used the last time.

./configure –with-debug # will configure with debug :)

If next time you run

./configure # it will use the same options ( same as ./configure –with-debug)

To clear the saved options and all generated files run “./configure –clear”.

To check current configuration information and options you used run:

Standard option – Install machine-independent data file’s in subdirectories of directory.

Examples of subdirectories are: bin include lib64 lib32 share

Some tools and libraries depend on third party libraries and development headers ( libxml2 , libhdf5 , . ). By default configure will attempt to utilize them from your system if they can be located.

You can provide their location by specifying one of the options: –with-hdf5-prefix , –with-xml2-prefix , etc.

Soybean May ’20 (ZSK20)

Stocks: 15 20 minute delay (Cboe BZX is real-time), ET. Volume reflects consolidated markets. Futures and Forex: 10 or 15 minute delay, CT.

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The Futures Options Quotes page provides a way to view the latest Options using current Intraday prices, or Daily Options using end-of-day prices.

Options prices are delayed at least 15 minutes, per exchange rules, and trade times are listed in CST.

Options Type

American Options: An American option is an option that can be exercised anytime during its life. American options allow option holders to exercise the option at any time prior to, and including its maturity date, thus increasing the value of the option to the holder.

European-Style Options: A European option is an option that can only be exercised at the end of its life, at its maturity. European options tend to sometimes trade at a discount to their comparable American option because American options allow investors more opportunities to exercise the contract.

Short Dated New Crop Options: The term short-dated refers to a shorter window before the option’s last trading day, otherwise known as option expiration. A traditional (or long-dated) option has a longer window before the option expires. In corn, traditional December calls and puts expire in late November. In soybeans, traditional November calls and puts expire in late October. Short-dated options have the same underlying futures contract (or instrument). The underlying futures contract for corn is December, and the underlying futures contract for soybeans is November. With short-dated, there are fewer days of coverage. As an example, a July short-dated option will expire in late June, even though the underlying futures contract is December.

Calendar Spread Options: A calendar spread is an option spread established by simultaneously entering a long and short position on the same underlying asset but with different delivery months. Sometimes referred to as an interdelivery, intramarket, time or horizontal spread.

Weekly Options: Weekly options are the same as standard American Options, except they expire on a Friday.

  • Week 1 options expire on the first Friday of the month
  • Week 2 options expire on the second Friday of the month
  • Week 3 options expire on the third Friday of the month
  • Week 4 options expire on the forth Friday of the month
  • Week 5 options expire on the fifth Friday of the month (if it exists)

Weekly European Options: Same as Weekly Options above but can only be exercised at the maturity date (Friday).

Monday Weekly Options: A weekly option that expires on Monday rather than Friday.

  • Week 1 – 1st Friday of the month
  • Week 2 – 2nd Friday of the month
  • Week 3 – 3rd Friday of the month
  • Week 4 – 4th Friday of the month
  • Week 5 – 5th Friday of the month

Wednesday Weekly Options: A weekly option that expires on Wednesday rather than Friday.

  • Week 1 – 1st Wednesday of the month
  • Week 2 – 2nd Wednesday of the month
  • Week 3 – 3rd Wednesday of the month
  • Week 4 – 4th Wednesday of the month
  • Week 5 – 5th Wednesday of the month

New Crop Options: Options with an expiration date after harvest has been completed.

CSO Consecutive: A calendar Spread where the first leg is the front month and the second leg is the next available month.

Average Price Options: A type of option where the payoff depends on the difference between the strike price and the average price of the underlying asset. If the average price of the underlying asset over a specified time period exceeds the strike price of the average price put, the payoff to the option buyer is zero. Conversely, if the average price of the underlying asset is below the strike price of such a put, the payoff to the option buyer is positive and is the difference between the strike price and the average price. An average price put is considered an exotic option, since the payoff depends on the average price of the underlying over a period of time, as opposed to a straight put, the value of which depends on the price of the underlying asset at any point in time.

Crack Spreads: The spread created in commodity markets by purchasing oil options and offsetting the position by selling gasoline and heating oil options. This investment alignment allows the investor to hedge against risk due to the offsetting nature of the securities.

Crack Spread Average Price Options: Similar to Crack Spreads above, but use Average Price options.

MidCurve Options: Eurodollar Mid-Curve options are short-dated American-style options on long-dated Eurodollar futures. These options, with a time to expiration of three months to one year, have as their underlying instrument Eurodollar futures one, two, three, four or five years out on the yield curve.

Weekly 1-Year Options: Similar to MidCurve options, but expire in 1 weeks.

Weekly 2-Year Options: Similar to MidCurve options, but expire in 2 weeks.

Weekly 3-Year Options: Similar to MidCurve options, but expire in 3 weeks.

EOM Options: End Of Month options are designed to expire on the last business day of each calendar month, offering alignment with month-end accounting cycles.

Additional Selection Criteria

Select an options expiration date from the drop-down list at the top of the table, and select “Near-the-Money” or “Show All’ to view all options.

You can also view options in a Stacked or Side-by-Side view. The View setting determines how Puts and Calls are listed on the quote. For both views, “Near-the-Money” Calls are Puts are highlighted:

  • Near-the-Money – Puts: Strike Price is greater than the Last Price
  • Near-the-Money – Calls: Strike Price is less than the Last Price
Data Shown on the Page

For the selected Options Expiration date, the information listed at the top of the page includes:

  • Options Expiration: The last day on which an option may be exercised, or the date when an option contract ends. Also includes the number of days till options expiration (this number includes weekends and holidays).
  • Price Value of Option Point: The intrinsic dollar value of one option point. To calculate the premium of an option in US Dollars, multiply the current price of the option by the option contract’s point value. (Note: The point value will differ depending on the underlying commodity.)
Stacked View

A Stacked view lists Puts and Calls one on top of the other, sorted by descending Strike Price. Puts are identified with a “P” after the Strike Price, while Calls are identified with a “C” after the Strike Price.

  • Strike: The price at which the contract can be exercised. Strike prices are fixed in the contract. For call options, the strike price is where the shares can be bought (up to the expiration date), while for put options the strike price is the price at which shares can be sold. The difference between the underlying contract’s current market price and the option’s strike price represents the amount of profit per share gained upon the exercise or the sale of the option. This is true for options that are in the money; the maximum amount that can be lost is the premium paid.
  • Open: The open price for the options contract for the day.
  • High: The high price for the options contract for the day.
  • Low: The low price for the options contract for the day.
  • Last: The last traded price for the options contract.
  • Change: Today’s change in price
  • Volume: The total number of option contracts bought and sold for the day, for that particular strike price.
  • Open Interest: Open Interest is the total number of open option contracts that have been traded but not yet liquidated via offsetting trades for that date.
  • Premium: The price of the options contract.
  • Time: The time of the last trade for the options contract.
Side-by-Side View

A Side-by-Side View lists Calls on the left and Puts on the right.

  • Last: The last traded price for the options contract.
  • Volume: The total number of option contracts bought and sold for the day, for that particular strike price.
  • Open Interest: Open Interest is the total number of open option contracts that have been traded but not yet liquidated via offsetting trades for that date.
  • Premium: The price of the options contract.
  • Strike: The price at which the contract can be exercised. Strike prices are fixed in the contract. For call options, the strike price is where the shares can be bought (up to the expiration date), while for put options the strike price is the price at which shares can be sold. The difference between the underlying contract’s current market price and the option’s strike price represents the amount of profit per share gained upon the exercise or the sale of the option. This is true for options that are in the money; the maximum amount that can be lost is the premium paid.
Totals

The totals listed at the bottom of the page are calculated from All calls and puts, and not just Near-the-Money options.

  • Put Premium Total: The total dollar value of all put option premiums.
  • Call Premium Total: The total dollar value of all call option premiums.
  • Put/Call Premium Ratio: Put Premium Total / Call Premium Total
  • Put Open Interest Total: The total open interest of all put options.
  • Call Open Interest Total: The total open interest of all call options.
  • Put/Call Open Interest Ratio: Put Open Interest Total / Call Open Interest Total.
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