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The Very Long and Fascinating History of Clocks

The history of clocks is a very long and interesting one indeed. If you have the time why not check it out for yourself?

“Time is money”, so it is said, but the history of clocks is a long and fascinating one. Keeping track of time was one of mankind’s earliest developments and it has come a very long way since antiquity.

Early solutions included using shadows from the Sun and water clocks, but these proved unreliable for accurate timekeeping. Mechanical clocks appeared during the middle ages and the development of the pendulum clock would be the de facto timepiece for many hundreds of years.

Today thanks to quartz oscillators and atomic clocks, keeping time has become a very precise technology indeed.

In the following article, we’ll take a quick tour through the history of clocks and stop off at some key moments. If you have the time why not read on?

Who invented clocks?

According to historical records and archaeological finds the first time keeping devices known was developed by the Ancient Egyptians. Called Shadow Clocks, they were able to divide the day into 12-hour periods and used some of their enormous obelisks to track the movement of the sun.

They were also able to develop the first example of water clocks which appear to have first been employed in the Precinct of Amun-Re. Water clocks were later adopted by the Ancient Greeks (called the Clepsydra ), and the Zhou Dynasty also developed their own versions around the same time.

These early water clocks were simple devices consisting of a reservoir of water with a tiny hole cut into the bottom. This lets the water out at a steady rate and hours were marked off with lines inside the water reservoir.

Candle Clocks were another ancient timekeeping device that was used widely around the world from China to England and Mesopotamia. Timesticks were developed in places like India and Tibet and the hourglass (which was widely used throughout Europe) arose a little later.

Sundials were developed around this time too and provided a good estimate for the hour of the day – at least when it was sunny.

Many if not all of these early time-keeping devices had their inherent problems, however. Shadow Clocks and Sundials didn’t work at night, water clocks were notoriously inaccurate as water flows at different rates depending on the ambient temperature.

Water also has the annoying habit of freezing in winter and evaporating during summer. What was needed was a timekeeping device that could overcome these problems. The answer, as it turned out, was to go mechanical.

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The first escapements appear in around the 3rd Century BC in Greece. These were simple water-powered versions that were able to transfer rotational energy into intermittent motion.

The Chinese were able to develop a mercury version in around the 10th Century with the direct ancestors of mechanical cocks appearing in 11th Century Iran.

The first true mechanical clocks appeared in 14th Century Europe. These early mechanical clocks employed the verge escapement mechanism with a foliot or balance wheel for accurate timekeeping.

The first examples were truly huge devices and relied on the use of heavy-weights to drive the clock’s hands. They were often built in tall towers and were able to keep relatively good time for long periods.

Most often only lost about 2 hours a day. Whilst that might sound very inaccurate today, they were cutting edge at the time.

Some can still be found today with some examples in England and France dating to the 14th Century. Many would prove to be exquisite works of art like the Prague Astronomical Clock.

Mechanical clocks would quickly prove their worth as being very reliable (for the time) and were the de facto timepiece until the development of the true pendulum clock in the late 17th Century by Christiaan Huygens. Galileo would show a little earlier, in 1581, that pendulums could be used to help keep clocks accurate so long as the pendulum was swinging.

With the invention of the mainspring in the 15th Century, clocks were able to go portable for the first time. They would gradually reduce in size until pocketwatches first began to appear in the 17th Century.

The invention of the balanced spring and addition to clock balance wheels in the mid 17th Century greatly improved timekeeping device accuracy. Despite these advancements, pendulum clocks remained one of the most accurate clock designs well into the 20th Century.

This was until the developed of quartz oscillators and atomic clocks in the post-war years.

Microelectronics began to appear in the 1960s and were first used in laboratories. These made quartz clocks more compact and much cheaper to manufacture and produce. By the 1980s they became the world’s dominant timekeeping technology in both clocks and wristwatches.

Atomic clocks are far more accurate than any previous timekeeping device, and are used to calibrate other clocks and to calculate the International Atomic Time; a standardized civil system, Coordinated Universal Time, is based on atomic time.

How did they tell time before clocks?

Before the development of mechanical clocks, timekeeping devices were a lot more basic in design. Many ancient civilizations are known to have observed the motions of astronomical bodies and the sun to determine dates, times and seasons.

The very first calendars may have been devised during the last glacial period who used sticks and bones to track the phases of the moon for seasons.

Later megalithic structures were developed like Stonehenge in the United Kingdom and throughout Europe.

Methods of sexagesimal-timekeeping, now common in both Western and Eastern societies, first appear nearly 4,000 years ago in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Early devices included sundials and other shadow clocks of the period.

Mesoamericans similarly modified their usual vigesimal counting system when dealing with calendars to produce a 360-day year.

Who made the first pendulum clock?

One of the biggest innovations in clock design was made by Christiaan Huygens during the 1600s. Building on the work of Galileo, Huygens was able to develop the first pendulum clock in 1656.

He patented his device the same year and pendulums would become a passion of his for many years. This culminated in his famous 1673 book the Horologium Oscillatorium , which is regarded as one of the most important 17th-century works in mechanics.

One of the key developments in Huygen’s clocks was the invention of the balance spring. There is some debate whether Huygens or Robert Hooke got there first, but Huygen’s was able to successfully employ it in his pendulum clock designs.

His pendulum clock design was much more accurate than the existing verge and foliot clocks and was immediately popular, quickly spreading over Europe.

Despite this, it seems Huygens was not able to capitalize on his invention. Pierre Séguier refused him any French rights, and Simon Douw of Rotterdam copied the design in 1658.

The oldest known Huygens-style pendulum clock is dated 1657 and can be seen at the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden .

Вариант 10

Раздел 1. Аудирование

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждую букву, обозначающую утверждение, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в поле справа.

Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись

1. Not having to visit doctors is being somewhat healthy.

2. It’s important to reduce stress to be healthy.

3. To be healthy, you have to be thin.

4. To look healthy is not to be healthy.

5. To be in good health one needs to be active.

6. To be healthy one needs to use cosmetics.

7. To stay healthy you need a balance of mind and body.

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведенных утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Вы услышите запись дважды.

Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись

A. Mike has been ill for a month.

B. Mike’s classmates have paid him long visits.

C. Mike loves watching TV.

D. Mike found a very interesting program on TV.

E. Jane had an easy day at school.

F. Mike enjoys watching informative programs.

G. Jane doesn’t agree to watch a quiz show on TV.

Вы услышите интервью. В заданиях 3—9 выберите цифру 1, 2 или 3, соответствующую выбранному Вами варианту ответа. Вы услышите запись дважды.

Нажмите , чтобы прослушать запись

The progress in the development of the English language was connected with .

1. Shakespeare’s death.

2. discovering America.

3. settling in the New World.

Why did American colonists borrow words from natives for geographical names.

1. They were easy to pronounce.

2. It helped to communicate with natives.

3. They found it handy and useful.

How did the English language grow in colonial times?

1. It spread among natives.

2. It gained words from local languages.

3. It became the mother tongue for colonies.

Which of the following is TRUE about the English word “dog”?

1. It has a less popular synonym.

2. Its origins are very interesting.

3. It came from an African colony.

What, according to Sally, is one of the ways for new words to appear in English?

1. Putting words together.

2. Expansion of meanings of borrowed words.

3. Shortening of existing words.

What does Sally Smith say about the word “radar”?

1. No one knows where the word came from.

2. lt’s an acronym.

3. It’s а borrowed foreign word.

Why is it difficult to count the exact number of English words?

1. Many of them have several meanings.

2. No one counts scientific words.

3. New words appear every day.

Раздел 2. Чтение

1. Women doing men’s jobs

2. Holidays – the best time to visit

3. Ideal to grow a man

4. A costume for a mythic sea creature

5. The best profession for a lady

6. A festival to a season

7. Words for all times

8. Best clothes for burial

A. Mary is a professional dress-maker specializing in exotic costumes. She devotes many hours to crafting mermaid tails and hand-made tops. Her professional mermaid costume includes a tail and a top. A tail is made of the finest silicone that bends naturally with movement and looks beautifully on film and in print. Out of the depths of the water her costume shines with hundreds ot pearls, crystals, and gemstones.

B. Today’s well-educated person uses about 18,000 words. Shakespeare, whose plays written for a small theatre are now performed in more countries than ever before, used over 34,000 different words, thousands of which he made up. For example: accessible, roadway, schoolboy, and watchdog. Many of his phrases have fallen into everyday use in our language today, including, “A horse, a horse! My kingdom for a horse!’’ by Richard III.

C. The Celtic division of the year was into two parts. The winter half was considered the beginning of the year, and the summer half the second part. There were two further subdivisions. so the year was finally divided into the standard four seasons. At each of these four stages, a Fire Festival was celebrated. It involved religious ceremonies, music, storytelling, and poetry. These great festivals were regarded to be the best time.

D. As symbols of respect and courage, knights turned out to be an intriguing mix of all the things that made males the best, as their education included the most effective sorts of exercises for the brain and the human body. Knight tournaments were a good way for the knights to try out the actual travails of fighting and never having to go through the pain and troubles of having to look after themselves, and of their kingdoms.

E. Were there any women pirates in Renaissance England? They were in the minority, but they were never the less there and very able. Lady Mary was a daughter of a pirate and married to a pirate. When her husband died, she recruited her castle staff and went to sea herself. Her luck ran out when she captured a German captain, who was a friend of Queen Elizabeth. So Lady Mary quit piracy . and started selling stolen goods.

F. Russia is an amazing holiday destination. It should be visited during the festival season, as it reveals the rich cultural tradition and fascinating customs of its people. While the festivals come from the Christian legacy Russia shares with Europe and America, the manner of celebration is unique. Enthusiastic travelers suggest planning a Russian holiday during the festival time and to be sure that the memories will last a lifetime!

G. Normally very fine textiles are found in graves. Obviously, the quality of clothing worn in the Middle Ages would reduce with lower ranks, but even the slaves did not wear cloth as rough as people thought in the past and some still do today. Slaves would probably wear their master’s clothes, which may have been very thin in places and not decorated. They would usually receive the underclothes to be worn as overclothes.

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке лишняя.

1. when studying and can help to start memory

2. who struggle to learn foreign languages

3. had no experience of learning this

4. have experience of remembering words

5. who had used the “listen and sign” approach

6. can barely order a simple drink while abroad

7. facilitate verbatim memory for foreign languages

It is a source of national embarrassment despite hours of lessons and listening to foreign language tapes, most of us A ______. However, a new study suggests there may be hope for those who have difficulty with a foreign language – they should try singing it instead.

Research found that adults who sang wools or short phrases from a foreign language while learning were twice as good at speaking it later, It is thought that by listening to words that are sung, and by singing them back, die technhjuc takes advantage of the strong links between music and memory.

Although not clearly understood, music is known to help students В ______ recall.

Dr Overy said singing could lead to new approaches to learning a foreign language. She said: “Most people C ______ from songs they have heard and songs are sometimes used by language teachers widi young children.”

Dr Overy and her colleagues used recordings of Hungarian words to teach 60 adults. They chose Hungarian as the participants D ______ language.

The participants either listened to words that were spoken and then had to repeat them back, much like a standard teach-yourself tape, or the words were said rhythmically or sung.

After a 15-minute learning period, they were then given several tests to see how well they had learned the words. Those E ______ scored highest. They were also better at recalling the words correctly in tests of long term memory. Interestingly, they did not sing the words when they recalled them.

Dr Ludke said the findings could help those F ______.

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.

In some heavily multilingual areas of the world, most people learn a lingua franca – a regional trade language in addition to their mother tongue. But when someone proposes English or French say, as a trade language, objections inevitably arise. These languages are notoriously difficult to learn with strange spellings and numerous grammatical rules and exceptions. But more importantly, they’re loaded with historical and cultural baggage. The only hope for a truly universal language would seem to he an artificial one a language that is designed to be free from cultural biases and easy to learn This was precisely the goal of Esperanto.

L. L. Zarnenhof grew up in the late 1800s in Warsaw, which was a part of Russia at that time. While still in high school he set out to design a universal artificial language that would facilitate communication within his linguistically diverse community. By the time he finished this side projec t ten years later, Zamenhof was a practicing ophthalmologist. In 1887, Zamenhof published the first guide in RUssian to the new language, which he called “Lingvo Internacia”, meaning “international language”. Zamenhоf wrote the textbook under the pseudonym “Esperanto,” meaning ”a person who is hoping” in Lingvo Internacia. Fans of the language decided that “Esperanto” had a nicer ring to it, and they soon adopted it as the informal name of the language.

Esperantо was designed to be both easy to learn and culturally neutral. According to some sources, an English speaker can learn Esperanto up to five times faster than Spanish. For starters, Esperanto uses strictly phonetic spelling – a given letter always makes exactly the same sound. Second, the structure оf Esperanto is very simple, with only sixteen basic grammatical rules that need to be learned – and no exceptions to the rules such as irregular verbs. And third, Esperanto has a very small core vocabulary, new words are constructed by combining words and adding prefixes and suffixes.

The vocabulary of Esperanto will have a familiar ring to anyone who knows a European language, as roots were borrowed from French, German, and Spanish, among other languages. For examples: ”bona” means ”good” ; ”porko” means “pig”; “filo” means “son”; “hundo” means “dog.” One could argue that this selection represents not so much cultural neutrality as Euro-neutrality, but this hasn’t prevented Esperanto from becoming popular in China and some other parts of Asia.

For all its merits, Esperanto has not reached the level of acceptance its creator foresaw more than a century ago. There may be as many as two million people who speak Esperanto with at least a moderate level of proficiency, but probably no more than a few hundred who learned Esperanto at home as their first language and no known speakers over the age of three or so who speak only Esperanto. Ironically, the cultural neutrality that is touted as such a benefit of the language also serves to limit its growth, because languages tend to spread with the cultures that gave rise to them. Alas, unless or until the number of Esperanto speakers reaches a larger critical mass, it will be of little value as a trade language, and without a clear value, it will be difficult to convince people to learn it.

According to the text, an artificial language should .

1. be similar to the mother tongues of the majority of speakers.

2. be based on cultural and historical traditions.

3. have clear grammatical rules and exceptions.

4. be simple and culturally neutral.

Zamenhof started to work on a new language because .

1. it was his school home assignment.

2. he wanted to improve communication in his multilingual environment.

3. it was an important requirement for his job.

4. he had problems with studying Russian in Warsaw.

At first, the word “Esperanto” was used as the .

1. name of the new language.

2. pen-name of the new language designer.

3. title of the book about the new language.

4. name of the place where the new language was designed.

According to the text, it is NOT true that .

1. grammatical system of Esperanto is easy.

2. Esperanto is easier for the speakers of English.

3. Esperanto has a simple phonetic system.

4. the new words in Esperanto are built up by joining words.

According to the text, Esperanto represents Euro-neutrality because it is.

1. designed for the Europeans.

2. based on European culture.

3. based on different European languages.

4. designed to be used within Europe.

The phrase “level of acceptance” in “Esperanto has not reached the level of acceptance its creator foresaw . ” (paragraph 5) means the level at which the language is .

Чтение в формате ЕГЭ – вариант 1

Здесь находится тренировочное задание на чтение в формате ЕГЭ, вариант 1.

Задание 1. Установите соответствие между текстами А-G и заголовками 1-8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний.

1. Simple pleasures
2. Historical visits
3. Hiking trips
4. Lap of luxury
5. The high seas
6. Down the slopes
7. Going downstream
8. Frozen wonders

A. A holiday is many things to many people. Some like to be active, while others like to just sit back and relax. A fun family trip that everyone can enjoy is river rafting. This is where you and your whole family sink into an inflatable craft on a slow flowing river and just lie back and watch nature as it passes you by.

B. Most people put a lot of focus on a holiday’s specific destination. Others have something else in mind. They want five-star hotels, fine dining and other niceties at their fingertips. You have to admit, it’s not a bad idea. Who needs to go sightseeing when you can just get a deep massage, swim in a heated pool or have chocolate-covered strawberries delivered to your table?

C. It’s hard to believe someone would want to stay in an ice hotel, but believe it or not, such a thing exists. There’s one in the most northern regions of Sweden which operates during winter. It’s not as cold as one would think, as long as you don’t touch the walls! As for day trips, it’s a snowy winter wonderland as far as the eye can see.

D. Seeing nature is definitely a good choice for a holiday adventure. One idea is to visit a canyon. Often, you can walk through the centre of the canyon and see towering cliffs and fascinating rock formations It’s a great way to get a bit of exercise as well. Just make sure you’ve got a sturdy pair of boots on for the rough terrain.

E. Summer isn’t the only time you can go on a fulfilling holiday. Many winter destinations have much to keep you entertained. Take skiing trips, for example. A gorgeous drive to the mountains is enough to take your stress away. Few things are more thrilling than gliding over snow at speed. Even if you’re afraid of skiing, there’s always the beginner runs. Even little kids give those a try!

F. Imagine visiting ten different cities in just two weeks. This is the type of holiday you can have on a cruise ship. Each time the ship pulls into a new port, you get to hop off and explore a new, exotic locale. And in between stops, you can admire the amazing waters of the world. You may love the water so much, you never want to return to land!

G. Some people’s idea of a holiday is very straightforward. All they want is to lie undisturbed on a golden beach surrounded by crystal blue waters, with an umbrella to shield them from the bright rays. It may be the typical holiday setting, but you have to admit, it’s very popular for a reason. Just make sure you pack extra sun cream and a large hat!

A – 7
B – 4
C – 8
D – 3
E – 6
F – 5
G – 1

Задание 2. Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски А-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке 1-7 лишняя.

The Thames Barrier
Flooding has become a grave concern for many areas of the UK. Possibly due to global warming, it seems that the UK is getting wetter and wetter as each year passes. Recent rains have ruined thousands of peoples homes A _______ .

The UK is no stranger to floods. For centuries citizens in London suffered from tidal surges that would creep up the river Thames and flood the city. For this reason, the British government decided to build a barrier, known as the Thames Barrier, В _______ .

Built in the late 1970s, the barrier has saved the country billions of pounds in building repairs. It has saved lives also; the 1928 Thames flood killed 14 people, and 307 people died in the North Sea flood of 1953. After this, the importance of building С ________ .

The barrier, constructed in southeast London, is a marvel to look at. The concrete barrier supports are topped with huge domes of polished steel that look very futuristic. The barrier works by tilting large platforms, D ________ , upwardly into a vertical position in order to block the flow of water. Since its construction, the floodgates have been closed over 160 times.

The barrier was built with the future in mind, and designed to withstand devastating flood conditions. At some point, however, it will have to be fortified, as estimates predict that it will lose E ________ . More will need to be done to extend its usefulness.

The barrier has been successful for London, but it was designed specifically to protect the capital city. In other regions of the UK, it will take more F ________ .

1. to protect the country’s wide expanses of rural farmland from flooding
2. a barrier was thrust to the forefront of government policy
3. and left many of them homeless for months
4. which have saved numerous lives in the decades since being built
5. a great deal of its protection powers after the year 2070
6. which lie flat on the river bed during normal sea and weather conditions
7. to keep the floodwater from spilling over into the streets

A – 3
B – 7
C – 2
D – 6
E – 5
F – 1

Задание 3. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания. В каждом задании выберете ответ, соответствующий содержанию текста.

Road trip

The second week of Sarah’s road trip proved to be problematic. Even though she had voiced concerns about her boyfriend’s ‘great idea’ of buying a used van to travel around in, she wasn’t about to say ‘I told you so’ when it broke down halfway across Kentucky.

She did, however, sigh when Josh asked if she would chip in for repairs. ‘I’m going to have to call my parents for this, you know,’ she said in a patient yet admonishing tone.

So the pair of them, accompanied by Sarah’s sister, Michelle, and a friend, Shane, were stranded for the next couple of days in Bardstown, population 11,700. They scrabbled to find something to do to entertain themselves while they waited for the engine part to arrive. They’d made sleeping arrangements at a quaint bed and breakfast near the historic district. It was either that or the row of bog standard, characterless motels out on the interstate highway that Sarah had convinced the others to avoid. ‘The mechanic said we should check out Bardstown. It might be pretty dull, but how bad can it be?’ she urged the group, not fully convinced they’d find something better. Michelle, who usually argued for the sake of it, was for once on board. The guys agreed.

Once the accommodation was taken care of, they set out for the bit of sightseeing that Bardstown had to offer. They perused the main road, with its dozen or so buildings that had survived from the town’s days as an early trading post. Each one had its own version of a knick-knack shop. They were charming, and contrary to Sarah’s gut feeling from before, there were much worse places to be stranded in.

They decided to enter one of the shops. Although more spacious than the others, it was still jam-packed with stuff. ‘Howdy, folks,’ the shop owner said as they entered, which was not so much ‘Welcome to Bardstown’ as ‘You break it, you buy it.’ Sarah suspected it was an age-appropriate comment, as they didn’t look like the most responsible bunch, despite the opposite being true in her case.

The shop was filled with the typical antique shop items: odd, mismatched china sets, silverware, wooden furniture, lampshades. The walls had dozens of old paintings only the painter could love and more stuffed birds than Sarah cared to see. The shop was void of people, eerily quiet, and even though she and Michelle found humour in the items, they kept their comments to themselves. The guys admired the old hunting rifles. ‘I hope there aren’t any bullets left in those,’ Michelle quipped, the words jarring the silence.

Less interested in gazing at objects, Sarah decided to strike up a conversation with the owner. ‘Have you lived here all your life?’ Sarah asked, imagining the answer to be ‘Yes.’

‘My parents were even born here. In fact, there might be more people in town I’m related to than not,’ the owner said, straight-faced. Sarah didn’t know what to make of that comment, but she politely laughed. ‘Where are you guys from?’ he asked. ‘Certainly not from around these parts.’

‘We’re from New Hampshire. On a road trip across America. We’re going to California,’ she said, wondering if she offered too much information, little as it was.

‘Oh, too many earthquakes out there for me,’ he said. ‘I’ll stay put.’

‘We were wondering where we should get something to eat. Any recommendations?’ she asked genuinely, but also because she couldn’t think of anything else to say.

‘Everything’s safe to eat around here, except the burger joint out on the highway, next to the mechanic. Worst place to eat around. Worst mechanic in town, too.’

1. How did Sarah feel about calling her parents for help?
1) Eager.
2) Put out.
3) Enraged.
4) Disinterested.

2. Regarding accommodation, Sarah was sure …
1) there was something better than on the highway.
2) that Bardstown would be entertaining.
3) the mechanic knew what he was talking about.
4) she didn’t want to stay on the highway.

3. What does the phrase ‘gut feeling’ in the fourth paragraph mean?
1) A moment of confusion.
3) A feeling of certainty.
2) Discomfort in the stomach.
4) An initial attitude or belief.

4. The shop owner greeted the group with …
1) a humorous tone.
2) genuine kindness.
3) suspicion.
4) a salesman-like attitude.

5. Sarah thought that the paintings in the shop were …
1) attractive.
2) all very similar.
3) all by the same artist.
4) ugly.

6. Sarah laughed at what the shop owner said because she …
1) found it to be funny.
2) felt a bit nervous.
3) assumed he was joking.
4) thought of something funny.

7. How was Sarah likely to feel at the end of the last paragraph?
1) Relieved.
2) Concerned.
3) Amused.
4) Confident.

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