Gemini 2 – $12,341.37 Per Day

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Представлены процессоры Intel Gemini Lake

CPU Intel Gemini Lake получили несколько нововведений

Компания Intel вчера вечером представила процессоры поколения Gemini Lake. Это CPU (хотя для них вполне справедлив и термин «однокристальные системы») с очень низким энергопотреблением, ориентированные на компактные ПК, относительно бюджетные модели, гибридные решения и различные устройства, где критичен именно уровень TDP.

Процессоры Gemini Lake пришли на смену поколению Apollo Lake, которое заполонило нишу дешёвых ноутбуков в связи с практически полным отсутствием бюджетных CPU старших семейств Intel. Собственно, Gemini Lake — это последователи семейства Atom, просто сейчас Intel не использует данный бренд.

Всего в новом поколении пока насчитывается шесть процессоров: пара Pentium Silver и четыре модели Celeron. При этом три модели условно относятся к настольному сегменту, а три — к мобильному. Параметры новинок сведены в таблице ниже.

Модель Кол-во ядер/потоков Частота, ГГц Объём кэш-памяти L3, МБ GPU TDP, Вт Цена, долл.
Pentium Silver J5005 4/4 1,5-2,8 4 UHD Graphics 605 10 161
Pentium Silver N5000 4/4 1,1-2,7 4 UHD Graphics 605 6 161
Celeron J4105 4/4 1,5-2,5 4 UHD Graphics 600 10 107
Celeron J4005 2/2 2,0-2,7 4 UHD Graphics 600 10 107
Celeron N4100 4/4 1,1-2,4 4 UHD Graphics 600 6 107
Celeron N4000 2/2 1,1-2,6 4 UHD Graphics 600 6 107

Модели с индексом N относятся к мобильному сегменту, а с индексом J — к настольному. Как видим, в целом отличаются CPU мало, если не считать количества ядер у двух моделей. Все процессоры получили двухканальный контроллер памяти с поддержкой DDR4/LPDDR4. GPU UHD Graphics 600 содержит 12 исполнительных блоков, а у UHD Graphics 605 — 18 блоков.

CPU выпускаются по тому же 14-нанометровому техпроцессу и имеют исполнение FCBGA1090 независимо от платформы. Несмотря на свой далеко не самый значимый статус, процессоры Gemini Lake получили несколько новшеств, которые ранее не встречались в потребительских моделях Intel. К примеру, именно тут дебютирует технология Local Adaptive Contrast Enhancement (LACE). Судя по описанию, она призвана настраивать изображение на экране в зависимости от внешнего освещения.

Кроме того, Intel утверждает, что именно процессоры Gemini Lake впервые среди решений компании получили поддержку Gigabit Wi-Fi. Если точнее, то используется стандарт 2×2 802.11ас с каналами с частотой 160 МГц.

Можно также отметить поддержку HDMI 2.0 и вывод изображения в 4K при 60 к/с. Что касается производительности, Intel ничего не говорит о сравнении с Apollo Lake, лишь приводя в пример «компьютеры четырёхлетней давности», которые новинки опережают на 58%.

Если посмотреть примечания к пресс-релизу, то станет ясно, что Intel сравнивает «атомные» новинки с именно с их предшественниками. В частности, Pentium Silver N5000 с Pentium N3540 (Bay Trail). В этой паре первый превосходит второй на те самые 58%. А Pentium Silver J5005 опережает Pentium J2900 и вовсе на 68%. То есть о существенном приросте производительности можно говорить лишь в этом контексте. Как показали наши тесты, «атомные» процессоры всё равно весьма существенно проигрывают настольным Pentium даже прошлых поколений. И это весьма печально, так как на данный момент практически все бюджетные ноутбуки основаны именно на CPU Intel Atom, пусть и не использующих теперь данный бренд. Остаётся добавить, что первые ПК на основе новых CPU появятся в первом квартале 2020 года.

Red Lion GEMINI 2 User Manual

Page 37

INSTALLATION & REMOVAL OF THE RELAY BOARD

To install the relay board, locate the relay opening at the lower right-hand

corner, on the back of the Gemini. Pull the tab down while sliding the board into

the two slots in the housing. The relay board will seat into the unit, allowing the

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tab to return to its original position. To remove the relay board, pull down on the

tab just enough to allow the relay board to slide out. Grasp the terminal connector

and slowly pull until the relay board is removed.

1. SENSOR VOLTAGE AND CURRENT

The +12 V sensor supply voltage on the “DC OUT” terminal is nominal with

+/-25% variation due to line and internal load variations. All RLC sensors will

accommodate this variation.

2. HI/LO FRQ SELECTION

The HI/LO FRQ selection switch must be set on “LO FRQ” when switch

contacts are used to generate count input signals. Since the “LO FRQ” mode

also provides very high immunity against electrical noise pickup, it is

recommended that this mode also be used, whenever possible, with electronic

sensor outputs. The “LO FRQ” mode can be used with any type of sensor

output, provided pulse widths never decrease below 5 msec, and the count rate

does not exceed 100 cps.

levels given are nominal values +/-10% when the voltage on “DC

OUT” terminal is +12 VDC. These nominal values will vary in proportion to

the variations in the “DC OUT” terminal voltage, which are caused by line

voltage and load changes.

4. When shielded cable is used, the shield should be connected to “COMM.” at

the counter and left unconnected at the sensor end.

5. Input B set-up is identical to that of Input A. Input B is for Logic Inputs only.

6. Inputs A and B can accept source pulses from other circuits up to +28 V in

amplitude. For voltages above +28 V, a limiting resistor and zener diode

should be used to limit the voltage at the input.

Gemini 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

The Gemini program was designed as a bridge between the Mercury and Apollo programs, primarily to test equipment and mission procedures in Earth orbit and to train astronauts and ground crews for future Apollo missions. The general objectives of the program included: long duration flights in excess of of the requirements of a lunar landing mission; rendezvous and docking of two vehicles in Earth orbit; the development of operational proficiency of both flight and ground crews; the conduct of experiments in space; extravehicular operations; active control of reentry flight path to achieve a precise landing point; and onboard orbital navigation. Each Gemini mission carried two astronauts into Earth orbit for periods ranging from 5 hours to 14 days. The program consisted of 10 crewed launches, 2 uncrewed launches, and 7 target vehicles, at a total cost of approximately 1,280 million dollars.

After the prototype Gemini 1, which lacked most of the systems of the Gemini spacecraft, beginning with Gemini 2 the complete Gemini capsule was flown.

Capsule

The Gemini spacecraft was a cone-shaped capsule consisting of two components, a reentry module and an adaptor module. The adaptor module made up the base of the spacecraft. It was a truncated cone 228.6 cm high, 304.8 cm in diameter at the base and 228.6 cm at the upper end where it attached to the base of the reentry module. The re-entry module consisted of a truncated cone which decreased in diameter from 228.6 cm at the base to 98.2 cm, topped by a short cylinder of the same diameter and then another truncated cone decreasing to a diameter of 74.6 cm at the flat top. The reentry module was 345.0 cm high, giving a total height of 573.6 cm for the Gemini spacecraft.

The adaptor module was an externally skinned, stringer framed structure, with magnesium stringers and an aluminum alloy frame. The adaptor was composed of two parts, an equipment section at the base and a retrorocket section at the top. The equipment section held fuel and propulsion systems and was isolated from the retrorocket section by a fiber-glass sandwich honeycomb blast shield. The retrorocket section held the re-entry rockets for the capsule.

The reentry module consisted mainly of the pressurized cabin which held the two Gemini astronauts. Separating the reentry module from the retrorocket section of the adaptor at its base was a curved silicone elastomer ablative heat shield. The module was composed predominantly of titanium and nickle-alloy with beryllium shingles. At the narrow top of the module was the cylindrical reentry control system section and above this the rendezvous and recovery section which holds the reentry parachutes. The cabin held two seats equipped with emergency ejection devices, instrument panels, life support equipment, and equipment stowage compartments in a total pressurized volume of about 2.25 cubic meters. Two large hatches with small windows could be opened outward, one positioned above each seat.

Control, Propulsion, and Power

Attitude control was effected by two translation-maneuver hand controllers, an attitude controller, redundant horizon sensor sytems, and reentry control electronics, with guidance provided via an inertial measuring unit and radar system. The orbital attitude and maneuver system used a hypergolic propellant combination of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide supplied to the engines by a helium system pressurized at 2800 psi. Two 95 lb translation thrusters and eight 23 lb attitude thrusters were mounted along the bottom rim of the adaptor, and two 79 lb and 4 95 lb thrusters were mounted at the front of the adaptor. Power was supplied by 3 silver-zinc batteries to a 22- to 30-volt DC two-wire system. During reentry and post-landing power was supplied by four 45 amp-hr silver-zinc batteries.

Communications

Voice communications were performed at 296.9 MHz with an output power of 3 W. A backup transmitter-receiver at 15.016 MHz with an output power of 5 W was also available. Two antenna systems consisting of quarter-wave monopoles were used. Telemetry was transmitted via three systems, one for real time telemetry, one for recorder playback, and a spare. Each system was frequency-modulated with a minimum power of 2 W. Spacecraft tracking consisted of two C-band radar transponders and an acquisition-aid beacon. One transponder is mounted in the adaptor with a peak power output of 600 W to a slot antenna on the bottom of the adaptor. The other is in the reentry section, delivering 1000 W to three helical antennas mounted at 120 degree intervals just forward of the hatches. The acquisition-aid beacon was mounted on the adaptor and had a power of 250 mW.

Reentry

At the time of reentry, the spacecraft would be maneuvered to the appropriate orientation and equipment adaptor section would be detached and jettisoned, exposing the retro rocket module. The retro rockets consisted of four spherical-case polysulfide ammonium perchlorate solid-propellant motors (Star-13E (TE-M-385)) mounted near the center of the reentry adaptor module, each with 11,070 N thrust. They would fire fired sequentially at 5.5 second intervals to initiate the spacecraft reentry into the atmosphere, with attitude being maintained by a reentry control system of 16 engines, each with 5.2 N thrust. The retrorockets could also be salvo fired in conjunction with a launch abort scenario above 15,000 feet to separate the spacecraft from the Titan II Launch vehicle. The retrorocket module would then be jettisonned, exposing the heat shield at the base of the reentry module. Along with the ablative heat shield, thermal protection during reentry was provided by thin Rene 41 radiative shingles at the base of the module and beryllium shingles at the top. Beneath the shingles was a layer of MIN-K insulation and thermoflex blankets. At an altitude of roughly 15,000 meters the astronauts would deploy a 2.4 meter drogue chute from the rendezvous and recovery section. At 3230 meters altitude the crew releases the drogue which extracts the 5.5 meter pilot parachute. The rendezvous and recovery section is released 2.5 seconds later, deploying the 25.6 meter main ring-sail parachute which is stored in the bottom of the section. The spacecraft is then rotated from a nose-up to a 35 degree angle for water landing. At this point a recovery beacon is activated, transmitting via an HF whip antenna mounted near the front of the reentry module.

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